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SPAG Glossary (Revision)

 

Term

Definition

Example(s)

Adverb

Describes a verb, tells us how/when/why

He ran quickly/ the door opened wide/ I am quite tired

Adjective

Describes a noun

The bigger room/ a peculiar object/ my twinkling star

Verb

Doing or being words

Walk/think/is/be/listen/walking/bought/linked

Verb forms

verbs shown through more than one word

Have walked/am walking/ had been listening

Noun

Names of things

Happiness/door/flock/heroism

Proper noun

Names of events/people/places/dates

Wednesday/Tom/Birmingham/Christmas Day

Pronoun

Words to replace repeated nouns

He/his/me/my/them/they/you/their/its

Determiner

something that determines something about the noun

My/ one/ that/those/this/a/an/the/some

Article

A specific type of determiner

a/an/the (these are the only 3)

Preposition

Shows how something is positioned in relation to something else or show relationship of events in time.

Into/over/under/before/of/for/around

Sentence types

The four main types of sentences used

Question-Do you like this hat?

Command- Go and get the newspaper.

Exclamation- What a nice hat that is!

Statement- You have been told to listen.

Subordinating conjunction

A joining word used to introduce a subordinate clause to make a complex sentence.

I SAW A WABUB: if, since, as, when, although, while, after, before, until and because.

Co-ordinating conjunction

A joining word used to connect two main clauses to make a compound sentence.

For/and/nor/but/or/yet/ so

Subordinate clause

A part of a sentence that gives extra information. It does not make sense on its own.

Because of the noise/ even if you’re busy/ so that we can be early

Main clause

A part of a sentence that does make sense on its own and can be a simple sentence on its own

I enjoy football/Later, we should go out

Relative clause

Type of subordinate clause with a relative pronoun

Luke, who is kind, helped me/ Birmingham, which is where I live, has changed a lot.

Relative pronouns

Words used to begin relative clauses

Whom/who/which/where/that

Commas

Punctuation used to

1. Mark clauses/

2. Separate speech/

3. Split items in a list/

4. Address someone

1. After dinner, let’s go out.

2. Joe yelled , “Come here!”

3. I went shopping, had lunch, saw my friend and came home.

4. Listen to me, John.

Inverted commas

Punctuation showing talking (speech marks)

“Listen to me, Sam,” he moaned.

Apostrophe for possession

Punctuation to show something belongs to someone/something.

Joe’s pencil/ the children’s work/ the cats’ bed/ the cat’s bed

Apostrophe for omission

Apostrophe to show that a letter is missing from words.

Can’t/ dinner’s/ won’t

Contraction

When two words combine to make a shorter word.

Didn’t/ can’t/ shan’t/ tiger’s(tiger is)/ it’s

Subject

The part of a sentence doing the verb.

Suddenly, Lewis kicked the wall.

The rugby ball dropped over the posts.

Object

The part of the sentence having the verb done to it

Suddenly, Lewis kicked the wall.

The rugby ball dropped over the posts.

Passive voice

Where the sentence begins with the object and has to have an helping verb (was, is, had been) Often uses by. It can leave out the subject.

The list had been completed by the captain.

 

The list had been completed.

Active voice

Where the sentence has the subject before the object.

Now, Tom knew it was too late.

The captain completed the list.

Noun phrase

A group of words showing the noun

My hat/ the car/ a chimpanzee

Expanded noun phrase

A noun phrase expanded with adjectives or prepositional phrases.

The red, wailing creature

The creature with unusual claws

Adverbials/ adverbial phrase

A group of words that tell when/where/ how something happened.

She came to work here last year.

Near the lake, there was a house.

Present Progressive tense

The explaining tense. Uses an –ing verb.

Uses is, am, will be.

I am listening/ I will be going.

Past Progressive tense

The explaining tense. Uses an –ing verb.

Uses were or was

She was listening to music/ We were eating our lunch.

Past Perfect tense

Tense showing point in the past. Uses has/have/’ve

Verbs end in –ed or -en

I had listened to music

 

Present Perfect tense

Tense showing point in the past. Uses had

Verbs end in –ed or -en

I have drawn a picture/ She has taken my pencil.

Simple tense

States action without showing if they are completed or ongoing.

Has past/present/future versions

I walk to school.

Lewis will arrive soon.

Joe thought he was wrong.

Direct speech

When someone uses inverted commas to show someone is talking.

Scott yelled, “Go away!”

Indirect/reported speech

Explaining what someone has said without using speech marks.

She said that she wouldn’t come today.

He told me that he thought I was cool.

Synonym

A word with a similar meaning

Happy, delighted, pleased

Antonym

A word with the opposite meaning

Cold/hot        fierce/calm     loud/quiet

Prefix

A group of letters at the beginning of a word to make a new word.

Im/il/ir/un/dis/re

Makes    impossible/ illegal/unhappy etc

Suffix

A group of letters at the end of a word to make a new word.

Ed/ing/ment/ance/ly

Makes listened/ refusing/ acceptance etc

Root word

The original word that the word derives from.

Root of the word unhappily is happy,

Adds prefix un and suffix ily

Parenthesis

Extra information added through brackets/ commas or dashes

Brackets- His house (number 12) was on the news.

Commas- The table, which is green, is in the wrong place.

Dashes- My Sister- as always- got the most Easter eggs.

Hyphen

Punctuation used to join two words or to join a prefix and root where they have vowels next to each other.

Light-hearted/old-fashioned

Re-enter/ co-operate

Word families

Words that are linked because of their root word.

From the link circ (meaning round)

Circumference/circus/circuit/ circle/ circular

Formal language

Language/vocabulary used in serious situations or in important situations.

The cost of living has increased significantly.

Informal language

Language/vocabulary used in less serious and more casual situations.

The cost of living has gone up loads.

Homophone

Two words with same sound but different meaning

They’re/their/there     ball/bawl    cue/queue

 

Discussion Text

 

Should fast food be banned?

The issue being discussed is whether fast food should be banned from restaurants such as McDonald’s and KFC. Many people consider fast food to be a quick and delicious meal, while others see it as an unhealthy, lazy cheat.

Those who support the selling of fast food do so because they believe it sometimes makes finding and eating a meal easier. For example, a hard-working, busy parent may buy their child a McDonald’s on the way to their swimming lesson to make sure a sufficient meal is eaten by their child. In today’s society, we are busier than ever and fast food does what it says on the tin - the food is cooked and served quickly. 

A further point they make is that fast food is not that unhealthy. This view is supported by many local sportspeople, who state that eating fast food once in a while would be fine as long as people also exercise regularly. Daily exercise - which includes: walking, running, dancing or playing sports - can help negate the health issues associated with too much food being eaten.

However, there are numerous people who completely oppose the selling of fast food. Doctors explain that eating too much food with a high saturated fat content has been proven to have adverse effects on the following: blood pressure, weight, skin, complexion and mood. One might question whether, with all these negative health impacts, it is worth eating a burger and chips.

Furthermore, a minority of children become ‘addicted’ to the artificial taste of fried fast food; a few have even been known to refuse to eat anything else. Dieticians claim that a varied and balanced diet is essential for children to grow into strong, healthy individuals.

Having considered both sides of the arguments, I believe a restriction on fast food isn’t the solution because people should have the right to make up their own minds. A proposed alternative would be for fast food restaurants to also provide more healthy alternatives for each of their meals.

 

Warning Tale

Focus: Setting description

 

The Canal

 

A short while later, Tom and I, who were feeling ashamed, were stood at my front door. The sun still hid behind the cloud as if it were anticipating the reaction we were about to get.  Mum was stood there too (arms folded). I knew we were in trouble; her condemning look said it all.

 

It all began earlier that morning, Tom and I eagerly made our way down to the peaceful canal. We could still hear mum saying, “Don’t go near that canal because you might fall in,” We weren’t babies anymore! The sun caressed our backs and we could hear the blackbirds calling to each other as we walked through the long grass. Tom said it was safe; should I have known better?

 

After ten minutes, we reached the canal. The grey clouds swallowed the sun and we felt a cold breeze. The surface of the canal was covered with green weed; the water was stagnant and black. Seconds later, Tom grabbed my arm and yanked me forward. The ancient, towering oak tree was a decrepit statue, reaching out over the canal.   Dangling down (and enticing Tom), I could see an old rope swing.

 

At the water’s edge, Tom grinned at me. Taking a run up, he leapt daringly over the water. As he grasped the fragile rope, he swung back and forth. Then, he landed on the bank with a heavy thud. Delighted, he grabbed the rope for a second go. He’d meant to swing right the way across yet misfortune took over. The rope snapped, sending Tom plunging into the water.

 

At first I laughed but then I remembered; Tom couldn’t swim! What was I going to do? Shocked, I leapt in. I could see nothing; a curtain of darkness and weed obscured my view. But then I saw it! Something red emerging from the murky water: Tom’s hoodie!  Frantically, I grabbed it and dragged him to the side. “Thank you. I’d hate to think what would’ve happened if you weren’t here,” Tom trembled.

 

Persuasion 

Formal Letter Writing 

 

 

Miss L Mayo and Mr J Dehaan

Holway Park Primary

Taunton

TA1 2JA

 

05.11.1858

Mr Henry John Temple

Houses of Parliament,

London

SW1A 0AA

 

Dear Mr Temple,

 

I am writing to express my utter respect and gratitude for what a remarkable and extradordinary man Isambard Kingdom Brunel is. Through all of his hard work and dedication, he has managed to shape our lives and future generations for years to come. Therefore, there are a number of reasons why I strongly suggest that Isambard Kingdom Brunel should be knighted.

 

To start with, Isambard Kingdom Brunel designed the fantastic SS Great Britain. She was the first propeller driven ship and is unique in terms of its construction and size. Despite lots of criticism, Brunel showed resilience in its intention and ignored many sceptics who believed that a metal ship on such a scale would not be able to float. Consequently, the huge impact SS Great Britain will have on future designs is surely worth recognising?

 

In addition, the Clifton Suspension Bridge, which is in Bristol, is going to be a big turning point in the history of recognisable constructions. Brunel has many plans for the bridge which will be open 24 hours a day, seven days a week, 365 days of the year for horse and carriages: this is going to be a toll bridge (meaning horse and carriages have to pay to cross). This means that the money collected will go towards maintaining the structure of the bridge in years to come. He also plans to include a one-way system for pedestrians to travel across Bristol easily. This is an ingenious invention that has never been thought of before!

 

 

Furthermore, in 1833, Isambard Kingdom Brunel was appointed chief engineer for the new Great Western Railway. He was given the task of building a railway between Bristol and London. This will be used for many reasons: travelling; which people haven’t had the chance to do so easily before, cargo; for transporting goods more quickly and efficiently and for train watchers; to enjoy. Could you imagine the impact this will have on you and your parliament in years to come? This effort must not go unnoticed. It would be a shame, a shame not to give him the recognition he deserves.

 

I strongly suggest that you consider the points outlined above. Surely you agree that leaving the magnificent Isambard Kingdom Brunel without the acknowledgment he deserves is simply not an option? You must act now!

 

Yours sincerely,

L Mayo and J Dehaan

Defeat the Monster Tale

Focus: Character Description 

Beowulf 

 

 

Long ago in the land of Dane there was a frightful, grotesque monster, Grendel. Even his name was enough to terrify. Drool dripped from his festering mouth and as he stomped through the forest irately, the ground shook like an earthquake. King Hrothgar, who was crowned King of Dane, celebrated every night with his men in a great hall on the edge of the swamp. Grendel heard their festivities from the depths of his lair. He smelt the roasted ox and he felt the hunger scratch at his belly like a rat in a trap. “Another celebration and I’m still not included,” he reflected.

 

While the King and his men were sleeping, the ravenous Grendel stalked across the swamps and up to the great oak door. He tore the front door down with his blistered hands and charged into the grand hall. Bellicosely, he searched the room, his bloodshot eyes twitching, for any food the King and his men may have left behind. Exhausted with the constant chaos caused by Grendel, the King had no choice but to seek help.

 

Courageously, the great hero Beowulf arrived. As his ship carved through the waves, the wind ruffled his raven-black hair. His bright blue eyes sparkled in the sunlight. Boasting, Beowulf shouted to the King, “I will slay this monster of yours!” So that night the King and his men returned to the great hall. Eventually, they fell asleep and Beowulf waited patiently in a corner of the hall with his sword. Slipping silently through the marshes, Grendel arrived. He sliced a sleeping soldier in half and crunched on his bones. Grendel reached out for Beowulf and snatched his sword!

 

Enraged, determined, incensed, Beowulf seized Grendel’s arm and clung on, digging deep into his flesh. Howling, Grendel swung around; it was no good. Beowulf’s grip was tight, tighter than steel! Grendel could not escape Beowulf’s grasp and with one last terrible pull, Grendel’s arm tore away from his shoulder. Shrieking with pain, Grendel staggered back towards the swamp to bathe his bleeding shoulder: and to die.

 

Chortling, the King and his men cheered and chanted Beowulf’s name: “BEOWULF! BEOWULF!” The next night, the King invited Beowulf to the great hall to celebrate. Beowulf told great stories of all his adventures and joined in with all the joyful songs. “I’m not a hero, I’m just like you. Good will always prevail!” 

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