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You could:

  • Make a mini-dictionary with all the words
  • Create a word search with all the words included
  • Write a sentence with all of the words included
  • Use the 'Look, Say, Cover, Write, Check' method

Fowler's Yard



Omar had always wanted to be famous. So far though, his life had been about as dull as a dishcloth. But things were about to change.


It was raining and the streetlights had flickered on. After school, Omar made his way to Fowler’s yard. Peering through the fence, he watched the crane pick up old cars and drop them into the giant car-crusher. It was getting dark; Mum would be wondering where he was.


First, Omar heard it. Something scratched! Then he saw it: a copper body glinted; a pair of beady eyes stared towards him and metal claws grazed the bonnet’s rusted skin. It was a rat but like no other rat that he had ever seen. Omar shuddered. Other rats appeared. He saw their iron teeth glinting, heard their frantic chattering and smelt their stale bodies.


Slowly, another shape appeared, dragging its chrome scales as it slithered out of its hiding place. Omar gasped as a metallic snake turned its huge head, twisted its chain-mail body and creaked as it turned towards him. Two furious eyes glittered and a bronze tongue flickered.


Omar sprinted, his legs pounding the glistening streets. He headed towards the park where he knew the hiding places. Ducking down under the bandstand, his heart thumped as he waited. Perhaps they had not followed him?


Then, Omar heard what he had most feared. The rat army had slipped swiftly through the fence and into the park. The serpent cast a jagged shadow. Omar froze. Time crawled by and he waited.


The park seemed to settle back into silence. At the other end of the park, he could just see the silhouette of the snake wrapping itself round the slide and hear the rats cracking their teeth against the park gates.


Omar ran home and blurted out what had happened but his mother did not believe him. She muttered about tricks of the light and an overactive imagination. His Grandma shook her head but Grandpa looked straight at him and Omar knew. He knew that his Grandpa believed him.


After that day, Omar’s life changed. Things were never to be the same again. Sometimes Omar would wish that his days were still as dull as a dishcloth…


Discussion Text

Are Electric Cars Environmentally Friendly?



The issue being discussed is whether electric cars are environmentally friendly. Many people consider electric cars to be a much better alternative to fuel-powered cars, while others see it them as an over-priced, time-consuming waste. 


Those who support this idea do so because they believe electric cars have the potential to reduce pollution by having zero emissions. For example, electric cars can lead to an up to 30% decrease in carbon dioxide emissions.


In today’s society, with the growing threat of global warming, this could potentially make a real positive difference to the future of our planet.   

A further point they make is that electric cars require lower maintenance due to their electric motors; they also have less parts than a traditional non-electric vehicle, which means you save on operating cost. This view is supported by many drivers who state that because they emit fewer greenhouse gases and air pollutants than petrol or diesel cars – they are therefore a more environmentally friendly option.


However, numerous people completely oppose the idea of electric cars being environmentally friendly. Many experts have explained that electric cars are generally more expensive than petrol/diesel cars due to the high cost of the batteries they use – which are considered harmful to the environment. As a result, many consumers seem to be unwilling to pay the extra money for an electric car.


In addition, compared with fuel-powered cars, electric cars have relatively short periods between charges, which means their owners will be unable to travel for longer distances.


One might question whether, with these negative points, electric cars are actually as environmentally friendly as many people suggest.


Having considered both sides of the arguments, I believe that at this moment in time, electric cars are not quite ready to be considered as better environmentally friendly option compared to fuel-powered cars. Potentially in the future, when more research has been carried out, electric cars will become cheaper and a better tool to help us protect the environment we live in.


Zelda Claw


Thunder growled overhead. Zelda crouched in the darkness, staring.  Wind lashed the glistening tarmac and the street lights flickered, casting shadows across the darkened road. Rusted dustbins rattled in the wind, fences creaked and the rain drummed on car roofs. Zelda shivered. Where could she escape from the downpour?


At that moment, Zelda sensed something crawling, something creeping along the pavement, hugging close to the shadows.  Silently, a vague shape slipped into a doorway and Zelda was sure that she had glimpsed the flicker of a green eye.  She could just hear a low growl even though the rain danced a thousand deaths on the pavement.  Her fur prickled as she tensed herself.  What was it?


Without thinking, Zelda ducked under a lorry and tucked herself into a space near the engine which was surprisingly still warm.  It was still warm.  She could just make out what looked like an enormous cat pacing through the rain, like a shadow moving silently along the rain washed pavements.  Its white, needle-teeth jutted out of a scarlet mouth.  Power surged through every step.  Zelda flinched, crouching stiller than stone.


Beneath the lorry, Zelda waited but the great rain-cat drew closer and closer.  Emerald eyes glittered crazily and Zelda could hear its claws scratching on the tarmac.  Nearer it came until the great cat paused by the vehicle’s engine and sniffed.  Could it smell Zelda’s fear?


She could bear it no longer.  Leaping out from under the lorry, Zelda shot back across the rain-swept road and leapt onto and over the wall.  Landing on the other side – which at first she anticipated on missing - she paused.  Alone! The rain cat had not followed but Zelda could hear it screeching. It was a sound that seemed to tear the night in half.  Zelda shuddered with relief.  She was safe – for now.



Rain Cat


The Rain Cat is a common type of a feline that can be found in cities and large towns. 


Rain Cats are easy to identify as they are scrawny and undernourished. They are usually ten inches in height and covered in matted fur. Most juveniles are more healthy looking than adults, due to the fact that Rain Cat females look after the babies with sheer devotion. The majority of Rain Cats are drab in colour with large emerald eyes, which are their most striking feature.


Usually, the Rain Cats settle in urban areas, especially near gastronomic venues where they can easily find food.  They sleep under benches or behind bins and because they only hunt at night, they are rarely seen.


Unlike ordinary felines, the Rain Cats aren’t fussy about what they eat. Their menu consists of waste products discarded by the pubs and restaurants as well as an occasional rodent. Surprisingly, they have quite a sweet tooth and adore toffee apples, pumpkin pies and strawberry laces.


Most Rain Cats are renowned for their ability to attract rain clouds and cause huge downpours. While the majority of those interesting animals enjoy getting wet, some avoid the precipitation and hide during a storm. Additionally, Rain Cats are considered one of the world’s most stealthy hunters.


Interestingly, a small minority of Rain Cats are kept by the witches as pets in order to affect the weather. During heavy winds, the cats plummet to the ground onto the heads of unsuspecting passers-by like harbingers of the storm. Some linguists argue that this is the origin of a famous saying ‘It’s raining cats and dogs’ but it had never been officially confirmed.


SPAG Glossary (Revision)






Describes a verb, tells us how/when/why

He ran quickly/ the door opened wide/ I am quite tired


Describes a noun

The bigger room/ a peculiar object/ my twinkling star


Doing or being words


Verb forms

verbs shown through more than one word

Have walked/am walking/ had been listening


Names of things


Proper noun

Names of events/people/places/dates

Wednesday/Tom/Birmingham/Christmas Day


Words to replace repeated nouns



something that determines something about the noun

My/ one/ that/those/this/a/an/the/some


A specific type of determiner

a/an/the (these are the only 3)


Shows how something is positioned in relation to something else or show relationship of events in time.


Sentence types

The four main types of sentences used

Question-Do you like this hat?

Command- Go and get the newspaper.

Exclamation- What a nice hat that is!

Statement- You have been told to listen.

Subordinating conjunction

A joining word used to introduce a subordinate clause to make a complex sentence.

I SAW A WABUB: if, since, as, when, although, while, after, before, until and because.

Co-ordinating conjunction

A joining word used to connect two main clauses to make a compound sentence.

For/and/nor/but/or/yet/ so

Subordinate clause

A part of a sentence that gives extra information. It does not make sense on its own.

Because of the noise/ even if you’re busy/ so that we can be early

Main clause

A part of a sentence that does make sense on its own and can be a simple sentence on its own

I enjoy football/Later, we should go out

Relative clause

Type of subordinate clause with a relative pronoun

Luke, who is kind, helped me/ Birmingham, which is where I live, has changed a lot.

Relative pronouns

Words used to begin relative clauses



Punctuation used to

1. Mark clauses/

2. Separate speech/

3. Split items in a list/

4. Address someone

1. After dinner, let’s go out.

2. Joe yelled , “Come here!”

3. I went shopping, had lunch, saw my friend and came home.

4. Listen to me, John.

Inverted commas

Punctuation showing talking (speech marks)

“Listen to me, Sam,” he moaned.

Apostrophe for possession

Punctuation to show something belongs to someone/something.

Joe’s pencil/ the children’s work/ the cats’ bed/ the cat’s bed

Apostrophe for omission

Apostrophe to show that a letter is missing from words.

Can’t/ dinner’s/ won’t


When two words combine to make a shorter word.

Didn’t/ can’t/ shan’t/ tiger’s(tiger is)/ it’s


The part of a sentence doing the verb.

Suddenly, Lewis kicked the wall.

The rugby ball dropped over the posts.


The part of the sentence having the verb done to it

Suddenly, Lewis kicked the wall.

The rugby ball dropped over the posts.

Passive voice

Where the sentence begins with the object and has to have an helping verb (was, is, had been) Often uses by. It can leave out the subject.

The list had been completed by the captain.


The list had been completed.

Active voice

Where the sentence has the subject before the object.

Now, Tom knew it was too late.

The captain completed the list.

Noun phrase

A group of words showing the noun

My hat/ the car/ a chimpanzee

Expanded noun phrase

A noun phrase expanded with adjectives or prepositional phrases.

The red, wailing creature

The creature with unusual claws

Adverbials/ adverbial phrase

A group of words that tell when/where/ how something happened.

She came to work here last year.

Near the lake, there was a house.

Present Progressive tense

The explaining tense. Uses an –ing verb.

Uses is, am, will be.

I am listening/ I will be going.

Past Progressive tense

The explaining tense. Uses an –ing verb.

Uses were or was

She was listening to music/ We were eating our lunch.

Past Perfect tense

Tense showing point in the past. Uses has/have/’ve

Verbs end in –ed or -en

I had listened to music


Present Perfect tense

Tense showing point in the past. Uses had

Verbs end in –ed or -en

I have drawn a picture/ She has taken my pencil.

Simple tense

States action without showing if they are completed or ongoing.

Has past/present/future versions

I walk to school.

Lewis will arrive soon.

Joe thought he was wrong.

Direct speech

When someone uses inverted commas to show someone is talking.

Scott yelled, “Go away!”

Indirect/reported speech

Explaining what someone has said without using speech marks.

She said that she wouldn’t come today.

He told me that he thought I was cool.


A word with a similar meaning

Happy, delighted, pleased


A word with the opposite meaning

Cold/hot        fierce/calm     loud/quiet


A group of letters at the beginning of a word to make a new word.


Makes    impossible/ illegal/unhappy etc


A group of letters at the end of a word to make a new word.


Makes listened/ refusing/ acceptance etc

Root word

The original word that the word derives from.

Root of the word unhappily is happy,

Adds prefix un and suffix ily


Extra information added through brackets/ commas or dashes

Brackets- His house (number 12) was on the news.

Commas- The table, which is green, is in the wrong place.

Dashes- My Sister- as always- got the most Easter eggs.


Punctuation used to join two words or to join a prefix and root where they have vowels next to each other.


Re-enter/ co-operate

Word families

Words that are linked because of their root word.

From the link circ (meaning round)

Circumference/circus/circuit/ circle/ circular

Formal language

Language/vocabulary used in serious situations or in important situations.

The cost of living has increased significantly.

Informal language

Language/vocabulary used in less serious and more casual situations.

The cost of living has gone up loads.


Two words with same sound but different meaning

They’re/their/there     ball/bawl    cue/queue